Mexican Catholicism is centered around the cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe. In the first place, she is an Indian Virgin; in the second place, the scene of her appearance to the Indian Juan Diego was a hill that formerly contained a sanctuary dedicated to Tonantzin, ‘Our Mother,’ the Aztec goddess of fertility. We know that the Conquest coincided with the apogee of the cult of two masculine divinities: Quetzalcoatl, the self sacrificing god, and Huitzilopochtli, the young warrior god. The defeat of these gods -which is what the Conquest meant to the Indian world, because it was the end of a cosmic cycle and the innaguration of a divine kingdom -caused the faithful to return to the ancient feminine deities. This phenomenon of a return to the maternal womb, so well known to the psychologist, is without doubt one of the determining causes of the swift popularity of the cult of the Virgin. The Indian goddesses were goddesses of fecundity, linked to the cosmic rhythms, the vegetative process and agrarian rites. The Catholic Virgin is also the Mother (some Indian pilgrims still call her ‘Guadalupe-Tonantzin’), but her principal attribute is not to watch over the fertility of the earth, but to provide refuge for the unfortunate.